In the 12th century, a book sometimes attributed to Ibn al-Fath  includes illustrations of plants employed to make theriaca. Entitled Kitab al-Diryaq, or ‘Book of Antidotes’ it is held by the Bib.Nat. Paris (MS arab. 2964).
These photographs are of pages from a facsimile edition but you can see that the manuscript contains diagrams in addition to its written text and imagery.
You may wonder why I don’t course this hare myself. The answer is the same as why I’ve never chased anyone else’s theories, and raised very few of my own.
It tends to interfere with the effort to see pictures as they are when, deep down, there’s some pet theory you want them to prove for you.
But this is an interesting manuscript, and I’m fairly sure that it has been mentioned often in connection with the Voynich manuscript. I’m not claiming this is a discovery of mine, but it does bear on the subject of theriaca recipes.
It is like the imagery in ms Beinecke 408? – not exactly.
The botanical figures are laid out not unlike what is seen in printed copies of the Asian bencao literature, and it is included among those attributed to the Jazira of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries for its fusion of Hellenistic, Islamic (“Arab’) and Mongol influences.
The time is certainly close to that I’ve proposed for one critical stage in the Voynich imagery’s evolution, and the locus is close enough. However, in Bib.Nat. de paris ms arab. 2964, as in the Mashad Dioscorides (as I mentioned in earlier posts, most recently here) there is not the same intelligent use of plants’ roots as mnemonics which informs almost every one of the Voynich manuscript’s botanical folio.
Hence, the advantage in considering this manuscript of Ibn al-Fath’s text and/or its facsimile, is not to prove direct correspondence to the Voynich (unless that’s what you really want to try), but just to check the way that theriac and its ingredients were conceived in the Jazira at that time. The area, and that time, are ones to which I have for some years assigned one important phase of the Voynich manuscript’s evolution.
As you can see from the picture above, right administration of medicines was also considered to need some reference to the moon and its “tides”.
In fact, if anyone can show certainly that our manuscript represents the same series of plants in the same style as those in the Book of Antidotes, I might even modify my present view that there is no obvious sign of medical matter in MS Beinecke 408. (recognise this picture?)
 an undated article in Qantara says the author of the ‘Book of Antidotes’ is unknown, attributing it merely to ‘pseudo-Galen’. The same article mentions theriac being produced in Montpellier…
At the end of the Middle Ages, Venice possessed the secret recipe of a theriac, thanks to its connection with the East. But this ‘fine Venetian theriac’ had a competitor in the form of a French version from Montpellier, a town where the medical know-how from al-Andalus was perpetuated. The Montpellier theriac was prepared under the supervision of magistrates and doctors. Eventually, due to its high price and many ingredients, the theriac was considered a universal panacea. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, it was prescribed in Europe as a tonic and a tranquilizer. It was listed in the French pharmacopoeia until 1884.
 on the interaction of Greek, Islamic (‘Arab’), Syriac and Mongolian influences in the Jazira during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries see e.g.
Maja Kominko, ‘Constantine’s Eastern Looks: The Elevation of the Cross in a Medieval Syriac Lectionary ‘ in Piotr L. Grotowski Slavomir Skrzyniarz (ed.), Series Byzantina vol. VIII (2010) p. 177-194