Bibliography – best sources from my preliminary reading 2008-2010

reprinted from my old Blogger blog. It’s a list of the best among the works read during my preliminary survey of the manuscript.  I’ve omitted most of the articles from academic journals knowing that many readers have no access to them.  Works consulted between 2010-2015 are reserved at present (sorry) but I still think these are worth reading.

For the sake of readers without access to a large library, I added a few Internet references which covered relevant matter, but I expect that after five years, some will no longer work.

BOTANICAL Bibliography –  that list is very long and I put it up separately, so not included here.


An important article, for the history of scripts connected with the east sea, including plants whose parts were used in making books and inks is at:

I recommend also

The writings of Theophrastus of Eresus (any reliable translation)

Anna Pavord, The Naming of Names: the search for order in the world of plants (the Bloomsbury publication only)

Green, Tamara, Harran: City of the Moon God: religious traditions of Harran, Leiden: Brill 1992. esp. section on Sumtar Harabesi p.65sqq

Fujita, Tetsuro, “Traditional Medicine in Turkey VII: Folk medicine in Middle and West Black Sea Regions”, Economic Botany, Vol.49, No.4 (Oct-Dec, 1995), pp.406-422.(and others in the same series)

A list of Ayurvedic and Siddha texts, specifying when and where they were translated into Arabic, Persian and other languages is at:

Cheung, Catherine and deVantier, Lyndon, Socotra: A Natural History of the Islands and their People (2006) Odyssey Books & Guides. ISBN-10: 9622177700


Jundishapur – for the numerous romanisations of its name and an outline of current academic debate on this subject see:  I take the view that knowledge gained in the one centre was available to the other. The wiki article quotes an often-cited passage:

“Ath-Tha ‘ālibi, a scholar with access to Sassanian royal annals, says of pre-Islamic Persia: Thus, the people of [Susa] became the most skilled in medicine of the people of Ahwāz and Fārs because of their learning from the Indian doctor [who was brought to Susa by Shāhpur 1] and from the Greek prisoners who [were incarcerated] close to them; then [the medical knowledge] was handed down from generation to generation“.


Such an environment might explain the work’s ecclectic nature, as well as the range of discernable influences. It also offers a date in keeping with the period suggested by the figures – Jundishapur is said to have been founded c.271ce.  At present, though, I am not convinced that a work produced in Jundishapur, either as a teaching text or student’s notebook, would contain so little in its imagery that speaks of the Sassanian style. Nor do I see any need for a text such as that to have been encoded. I plan to research this question over the next long break.


Plants and uses -including medical – by region.

There are innumerable online and published sources for mainstream medicine in the Latin west. The following are essential or additional recommendations. 

*Etkin, Nina (ed.), Plants in Indigenous Medicine and Diet: biobehavioral approaches, New York: Redgrave (1986).

*Spencer, Judith, trans., The Four Seasons of the House of Cerruti, New York, Facts on File Publications, 1984. Copy of the Tacuinum Sanitatis, translated. On the interraction of medical and natural phenomena, including winds.

*Pedanius Dioscorides of Anarzarbus, de materia medica translated by Lily Y. Beck, Altertumswissenschaftliche: Texte und Studien, Zurich: OLMS (2005).

*Grieves, Mrs, A Modern Herbal (various editions). The online version reproduces a small portion of each original entry.

Hunt, Tony, Popular Medicine in 13thC England: Introduction and texts, CUP (1990)

Beith, Mary, Healing Threads: traditional medicines in the highlands and islands [of Scotland], Edinburgh; Polygon, 1995.

Grattan, J.H.G., and Charles Singer, Anglo-Saxon Magic and Medicine: illustrated especially from the semi-pagan text ‘Lacnunga’, (Publications of the Wellcome Historical Medical Museum, New Series, no.3 (limited edition) , 1971.

Revell, Alison, A Kentish Herbal, Kent County Council (1984).

Fujita, Tetsuro, “Traditional Medicine in Turkey VII: Folk medicine in Middle and West Black Sea Regions”, Economic Botany, Vol.49, No.4 (Oct-Dec, 1995), pp.406-422.

A list of Ayurvedic and Siddha texts, specifying when and where they were translated into Arabic, Persian and other languages is at:

D’Amdrea, David Michael, Civic Christianity in Renaissance Italy: the Hospital of Treviso, 1400-1530, NY: Uni of Rochester Press, (2007)



Egyptian style:

H. J. Kantor,  Plant Ornament In The Ancient Near East, Chapter VI: “The Florists’ Trade In Egypt And Its Reflection In Decorative Work: The Florist’s Products” (Revised: August 11, 1999)


Minta Collins, Medieval Herbals: the illustrative traditions, British Library Studies in Medieval Culture, British Library/University of Toronto Press, 2000

Di Sana Pianta. Erbari e taccuini di sanita: le radici storiche della nuova farmacologia, Edizioni Panini (n/d)

… and all of the above may be contrasted with a fairly typical product of the ‘Enlightenment’ (so-called):

Occult Physick, or The three principles in Nature anatomized by a Philosophical opperation, taken from Experience, in three Books. The first of Beasts, trees and herbs and their magical and physical vertues, the second book containeth most excellent and rare medicines for all diseases happening to the bodies of both men and women, which never yet saw the light; an incomparable piece. The third and last book is Denarian tract, shewing how to cure all Diseases with ten Medicaments: and the mystery of the Quaternary, with Qinary number opened with a table shewing the Sun’s rising, setting, hours of the day, hours of the night, and how many minutes are contained in a Planetary hour, both day and nght, with a table of the Signs Continuance on the Ascndant, fixed for Magical Uses; as gathering of herbs, roots and the like, with their uses. WHEREUNTO is added a necssary Tract, shewing how to judge of a disase by the Affliction of the Moon; upon the sight of the patient’s urine, with an example; also you are told how to erect a figure of heaven for any time given. London:1660.


India and maritime islands

Attygale, John, Sinhalese Materia Medica  (1994;1952;1917)


Africa, Ethiopia and Arabia

Oliver-Bever, Bep, Medicinal Plants in Tropical West Africa, London: CUP, 1986

Bibliography of Ethiopia’s endemic flora is at:.

Ethiopia’s commercial species at :

list of Ethiopian species with linked photographs – sadly without their native names:

J.R.I. Wood, A Handbook of the Yemen Flora (with colour illustrations by Hugo Haig-Thomas), Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens 1997. Contains an appendix of Arabic and scientific names.

and see Glossary of Arabic agricultural and medical (herbal) terms at end of Levey’s article in

Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, new series, Vol.56 No.7 (1966), pp.-130.

Mandaville, James P., “Flowers in the Sand”, Saudi Aramco World, Vol.19 No 1 (Jan/Feb 1968) pp.23-25 available online:

(Desert plants used by the Bedouin tribesmen as fodder, food and medicine).

Watson, Andrew M., The Arab Agricultural Revolution and its Diffusion, 700-1100, The Journal of Economic History, Vol.34 No.1 (mar. 1974) pp.8-35… but see also …. Jeremy Johns, ‘A Green Revolution?’, The Journal of African History, Vol.25 No.3 (1984) pp.343-344.

Varisco, Daniel Martin, Medieval Folk Astronomy and Agriculture in Arabia and the Yemen, Aldershot: Variorum (.1977).

Farmanfarmayan, Fatema Soudavar, “Haft qalam arayish: Cosmetics in the Iranian world”, Iranian Studies, Vol.33, No.3/4 (Summer-Autumn, 2000), pp.285-326.

Ancient World

Budge, Wallis, The Divine Origin of the Craft of the Herbalist.

Brun, Jean-Pierre, “The Production of Perfumes in Antiquity: the cases of Delos and Paestum”, American Journal of Archaology, Vol.104, No.2 (April 2000), pp.277-308

Auboyer, Jeannine, Daily Life in Ancient India from 200bc to 700ad, London: Phoenix Press, 1965 (esp. Ch. 4: ‘Economics and daily life’ – gives botanical nomenclature for traded plant materials).

D. Mattingly, ‘Paintings, Presses and Perfume production at Pompeii’, O.J.A. (1999) 9:71-90. [JSTOR]



Ancient,Classical and Medieval works:

*Afghanistan has been mining and exporting lapis lazuli to Mesopotamia and Egypt for about six thousand years.

Georgina Hermann, “Lapis Lazuli: The early phases of its trade”, Iraq, Vol.30, No.1 (Spring, 1968), pp21-57.

*Our oldest extant maps are (in a sense) geological and lithological

The Turin papyrus is an important example,sketching the Egyptian mines in the region of the Wadi Hammamat (Ar: “the valley of baths”).

A brilliant study of the stones and quarries in the Egyptian desert:

Caley, E.R., “The Stockholm Papyrus: an English translation with brief notes”, Journal of Chemical Education, IV:8 (1926) pp.979-1002.


also on the Stockholm Papyrus:

*on Bolos of Mendes / Democritus:

Eamon, William, Science and the Secrets of Nature: books of secrets in medieval and early modern culture, Princeton University Press, (date…).

*Theophrastus of Eresus “On stones”

*Geological diagrams, maps and information for Miletos are in:

Greaves, Alan M., Miletos: A History (2002) round about page 5. It contains a whole cluster of maps and diagrams

*Albertus Magnus “On Stones”

*Al-Biruni “On Stones”

A history of the lapidaries discussing the degree to which various sources affected thinking on the subject by the fifteenth century. Terpening’s footnotes offer a comprehensive bibliography.

Terpening, Ronnie, “The Lapidary of L’Intelligenza: its literary background”, Neophilologus 60:1 (1976) pp.75-88.

(2011 – It is now partly available at Googlebooks)

Harris, Nichola Erin, “The Idea of Lapidiary Medicine: Its Circulation and Practical Applications in Medieval and Early Modern England: 1000-1750 [ce]”, PhD Dissertation, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, 2009.

Duffin, Christopher J., “The Western Lapidiary Tradition in early geological literature: medical and magical minerals”, Geology Today, Vol.21 Issue 2 (May 2005) pp.58-63

a fairly useful website:

Gorge Rapp’s Archaeominerology (2nd edition) looks good, and is probably worth its weight in gold – quite literally.

For symbols used today:

see Section 37 at


Green, David, “A Welsh Lapidiary”, Celtica 2 (1952-4) pp.96-116.

Riddle, Jon M., de Lapidibus: Marbode of Rennes’ de Lapidibus. Weisbaden: Steiner, 1977.

Nunemaker, J.Horace, “A Comparison of the Lapidiary of Marbode with a Fifteenth-century Spanish Adaptation”, Speculum, Vol.12 No.1 (Jan 1938), pp.62-67.

Evans, Joan, Magical Jewels of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, New York: Dover n/d. First published by Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1922.

Obrist, Barbara, “Visualisation in medieval alchemy”, HYLE, International Journal for Philosophy of Chemistry, Vol.9 No.2 (2003), pp.131-170.

Kunz, George Frederick, Rings for the Finger, New York: Dover, 1971. Originally published in 1917 by J. Lippincott and Co.

Thompson, C. J.S., Magic and Healing, London, Rider & Co. n/d.

Thomas, William and Parritt, Kate, Book of Talismans, Amulets and Zodiac Gems.


Calendars and Rosters:

W. B. Henning. ‘The Manicaean Fasts’ The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, No. 2 (Oct., 1945), pp. 146-164.(JSTOR) URL:

___________, ‘A Sogdian Fragment of the Manichaean Cosmogony’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. 12, No. 2 (1948), pp. 306-318(JSTOR)



Winds and Ways – including navigational astronomy:


Taylor, E.G.R., The Haven-finding Art: a History of Navigation from Odysseus to Captain Cook, New York, Abelard-Schuman Ltd., 1957. [The 1971 edition contains a very important essay by Needham].


Background to navigation in the east sea.

Lewis, David, The Voyaging Stars, Sydney: Collins 1978.

Lewis, David, We the Navigators

Cicero, On the nature of the Gods and On Divination (various editions)

Hourani, George F., Arab Seafaring in the Indian Ocean before the coming of the Portuguese, Princeton University Press expanded edition 1995.

Mookerji, Radhakmud, A History of Shipping: maritime activity from the earliest times, London: Longmans, Green &; Co., 1918 p.19.

Divine, David, The Opening of the World, London: George Rainbird, 1973.

Severan, Tim, The Brendan Voyage [various publishers and editions].

Taylor, E.G.R. and Richey, M.W., The Geometrical Seaman: a book of early nautical instruments, London: Hollis & Carter for the Institute of Navigation, 1962.


Astronomies and their applications:

An overview of the regional astronomical traditions is at:

These are essential:

*Pingree, David, “The Indian Iconography of the Decans and Horas”, Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, Vol.26, No.3/4 (1963) pp.223-254.

Schiaparelli, Astronomy in the Old Testament, (1903).

*Scott, Alan, Origen and the Life of the Stars: A History of an Idea, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991.

*Hinkley Allen, Richard, Star Names: their lore and meaning, New York: Dover, 1963 p.331. (Originally published G.E. Stechert 1899 as Star Names and their Meanings. Flawed, but still the only text of equivalent value in English)

*Emilie Savage Smith, Islamicate celestial Globes 

*Nasr, Seyyed Hossein, An Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrines, New York: SUNY, 1993.

and see

Gleadow, The Origin of the Zodiac.

Boer, Charles (trans.), Marsilio Ficino’s Book of Life: Liber di Vitae (or Vita triplici), Woodstock publications, 1980 and 1994.


Some other articles consulted:

Bailey, Clinton, “Bedouin star lore in Sinai and the Negev” BSOAS XXXVII (1974) pp.580-596.

Walter, Christopher, Astronomy before the Telescope. London: British Museum Press [and its bibliography].

Barton, Tamsyn, “Augustus and Capricorn: astrological polyvalency and imperial rhetoric”, The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol.85 (1995), pp.33-51.

Datta, Bibhutibhusan, Ancient Hindu Geometry: the science of the Sulba. New Delhi: Cosmo 1993.

Hypsicles “Anaphoriskos” on rising times.

Richer, Jean, Sacred Geography of the Ancient Greeks: Astrological Symbolism in Art, Architecture and Landscape, State University of New York [SUNY] Press, 1994. translated from the French by Christine Rhone. First published in English, 1967

Tester, Jim, A History of Western Astrology, Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 1990,

Fibonacci, Liber Abaci.

Gettings, Fred, The Arkana Dictionary of Astrology, revised edition, Ringwood: Penguin, 1990.

Gettings, Fred, The Secret Zodiac: the hidden art in medieval astrology, London: Arkana 1989.

Faulkiner, R.O., The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts, OUP 1969.

Faulkner, R.O., ‘The King and the Star-Religion in the Pyramid Texts’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies.

Goold, G.P. (trans.), Manilius: Astronomica, (Loeb edition)

Jobes, G. and J., Outer Space: Myths Name Meanings Calendars, London: Scarecrow Press, 1964. (on the convention of using only 27 mansions and omitting Abhijit ). Otherwise, not recommended.

Jurdak, Astronomical Dictionary. (Arabic and English glosses)

Lamy, Lucie, Egyptian Mysteries, London: Thames and Hudson, 1981. The reader should not be deterred by the book’s melodramatic title.

ARAM Vol. 3 (1991)

Savage-Smith, Emilie, An Islamic thirteenth-century divinatory device

Scott, Walter (ed. and trans.), Hermetica: the ancient greek and latin writings which contain religious or philosophic writings ascribed to Hermes Tresmegistus, Boston: Shambhala 1993

Needham, Joseph, Science and Civilization in China, esp. Vol.IV, Pt.3 p.561; p. 573.

Neugebauer, O., The Exact Sciences in Antiquity. Second edition. Providence: Brown University Press, 1957. [Treat with caution; Neugebauer was unaware that mathematical or astronomical abilities existed beyond Babylonia and the ‘Aryan’ traditions.]

Sachau, Edward C., Alberuni’s India: an account of the religion, philosophy, literature, geography, chronology, astronomy, customs, laws and astrology of India about 1030ad, edited with Notes and Indices, (2 vols in 1), Delhi: S. Chand & Co., 1964. Originally printed, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

The following refer to calendars, rotas and rosters. I believe others may be better qualified to work on this part of the research, but I’ll come back to it later if necessary and see what I can contribute.

Pictures of some of the earliest known star-maps, calendars and agricultural rosters at:

Bernard R. Goldstein and David Pingree, Astrological Almanacs from the Cairo Geniza, Part 1″, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 38, No. 3 (Jul., 1979), pp. 153-175.

_________, “Astrological Almanacs from the Cairo Geniza, Part II”, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 38, No. 4 (Oct., 1979), pp. 231-256.

Lawrence H. Schiffman, Michael D. Swartz, Hebrew and Aramaic incantation texts from the Cairo Genizah: selected texts … (1992).

J. C. Greenfield and M. Sokoloff, “Astrological and Related Omen Texts in Jewish Palestinian Aramaic”, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 48, No. 3 (Jul., 1989), pp. 201-214

Agricultural rosters in the Mediterranean

A reference for the Roman tradition:


On the ‘alien’ Anahita as a river-goddess see e.g. Mary Boyce, Zoroastrians: their religious belief and practices. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul 1979 pp.61-2.

Hopper, Vincent Foster, Medieval Number Symbolism: its sources, meaning and influence on thought and expression, Columbia University Studies in English and Comparative Literature No. 132, Columbia University Press 1938. (Reprinted Mineola: Dover Press, 2000).

Albericus of London (fl.12thC), Libellus de imaginibus deorum, – published 1520. Author is referred to in secondary sources as Albericus londoniensis, Albricus or Master Alberic e.g. in Seznec, Jean, The Survival of the Pagan Gods: the mythological tradition and its place in Renaissance Humanism and Art, Bolingen Series XXXVIII, Princeton University Press, 1972, [translated by Barbara F. Sessions]., p.90n and Index ‘Albricus’.

Zoller, Robert, The Arabic Parts in Astrology, Rochester, Inner Traditions, 1989. Zoller’s index contains no reference to the lunar mansions, but see pp.126-131


Geography and History

India, Arabia and Adjacent Lands:

Freeman-Grenville, G.S.P., “The Coast 1498-1840” in his The Swahili Coast, 2nd – 19th centuries, London:Variorum 1988

Robert H. Hewsen, “The Geography of Pappus of Alexandria”

Boyce, Mary, Zoroastrians: their religious belief and practices. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul 1979

Serjeant, R.B., Farmers and Fishermen in Arabia, Aldershot: Variorum, 1995.

Amer Ali, History of the Saracens (various publishers and editions)

Burton, Richard, A Personal Narrative of Pilgrimage to Meccah and Al-Medinah, Dover, 2 vols.

Ibn Khaldun, The Muqaddimhah

Kimble, George H.T., The Rise and Fall of Muslim Geography, London: Methuen &; Co.

Himyar: History, script and language

MacMichael, A History of Arabs in Sudan, (various editions. Note that a recent release of this text is not a new edition, but that of 1967, reissued).

Lecker, Michael, Jews and Arabs in pre- and early Islamic Arabia (Variorum 1999).

_____ , Muslims, Jews and Pagans Medina,

Smith, G. Rex, Studies in the Medieval history of the Yemen and South Arabia (Variorum 1997)

Newby, Gordon D., A History of the Jews of Arabia from ancient times to caliphs under Islam, (1988)

G. Saliba, ‘A Medieval Note on the Himyarite Dialect’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol.105 No 4 (Oct-Dec 1985) pp.715-717.

Rubin, Zeev, ‘Islamic Traditions on the Sasanian Conquest of the Himyarite Realm’, Islam (2007) Bnd 84, S.185-199 (In german, with English abstract).

Winnett, F.V., ‘A Himyarite Bronze Tablet’, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No.110 (Apr. 1948), pp.23-25.

__________., ‘A Monotheistic Himyarite Inscription’, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No.83 (Oct. 1941), pp.23-25.

(note increasingly cursive forms)

Ricks, Stephen David, Western Language Literature on pre-Islamic Arabian languages: an annotated bibliography (c.1991)/

Stein, Peter, ‘Zur Dialekgeographie des Sabaischen’, Journal of Semitic Studies, XLIX No.2, (Autumn, 2004), pp225-245.

Benjamin, Jesse, “Of Nubians and Nabateans: Implications of research on a neglected dimension of ancient world history’ Journal of Asian and African Studies, (Nov. 2001) pp.361-383. (Useful bibliography)

Tindel, Raymond D., ‘Archaeological Survey of the Yemen: the first season’, Current Anthropology, Vol.21, No.1 (Feb. 1980) pp.101-102.

Varisco, Daniel Martin, ‘The Rain periods in Pre-Islamic Arabia’, Arabica, T.34, Fasc.2 (July 1987), pp.251-266. (In English: pertinent to the wheel diagrams).

Most of the purely historical material on Himyar is to be found under ‘Homeritae’ see e.g.

‘Leges Homeritarum’ Brill’s New Pauly [-Wissowa] available online.

‘Saba and Sabeans’ in ‘New Advent’ Catholic Encyclopaedia. Available online:


Pictorial and related information: (not necessarily sources for pics in the blog)

Beckwith, John, Early Medieval Art, London: Thames and Hudson, 1964

Evans, Joan ed., The Flowering of the Middle Ages, London, Thames & Hudson Ltd. 1998. [a useful collection of large, coloured pictures]. Also see ref to Verbard if Chartres

Boas, George (trans.), The Hieroglyphics of Horapollo, Book I,

D’Ancona, P., Aeschlimann E., The Art of Illumination, London, Phaidon, 1969

Delaney, John J., Dictionary of the Saints, New York: Doubleday & Co., 1980, p.366

Pennick, Nigel, Games of the Gods, London: Rider, 1988  (diagrams and numerical factors)


Links between the west and India up until 1430ce

Imports and exports by region for the Roman period (useful ready reference)

J. Innes Miller, The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire 29bce to641 ad, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969

de Romanis F. and Tchernia, A. (eds.), Crossings: early mediterranean contacts with India, New Delhi Manohar; Centre de Sciences Humaines 1997

Sircar, D.C.(ed.), Early Indian Trade and Industry, Calcutta University, [centre for advanced study in ancient Indian history and Culture, Lectures and Seminars No.VIII-A (Seminars) Part 1], 1972

Reade, Julian (ed)., The Indian Ocean In Antiquity, London: Kegan Paul in association with the British Museum, 1996

Pearson, M.N., Spices in the Indian Ocean World, Variorum [An Expanding World series Vol.11], 1996

Mukherjee, B.N., External Trade in early North-Eastern India, New Delhi: Vikas, 1992

Davarm Firoze Cowasji, Iran and India through the Ages, London: Asia Publishing House, 1962

Janaku, V.A, The Commerce of Cambay from the earliest period to the nineteenth century, Baroda: Mahaaja Sayajirao University, Dept of Geography, 1980.


The Aegean and its influences:


Mary Carruthers, The Book of Memory, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Dotson, John E.(trans. and ed.), Merchant Culture in Fourteenth Century Venice: the Zibaldone da Canal, New York: Medieval & Renaissance Texts and Studies, 1994


Abulafia, David, Italy, Sicily and the Mediterranean, 1100-1400, London: Variorum 1987

Gow, A.S.F., “The Adoniazusae of Theocritis”, Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol.58, Part 2 (1938), pp.180-204.

W. Rothwell, “From Oriental Bazaar to English Cloister in Anglo-French”

Niemeier, Barbara and Wolk-Dietrich, ‘The Minoans of Miletus’, in Betancourt, P. et. al (eds.), Meletemata: Studies in Aegean Archaeology Presented to Malcolm H. Weiner as he enters his 65th year [vol] II, Universite de Liege, 1999. – contains papers on Minoan Crete, its antecedents, connections, colonies and influence.

Attridge, Harold W., and Oden, Robert A. jnr., Philo of Byblos The Phoenician History: introduction, critical text, translation, notes. The Catholic Biblical Quarterly Monograph Series No.9, Washington: Catholic Biblical Association of America, 1981

Austin, M.M., The Hellenistic World from Alexander to the Roman Conquest, C.U.P. 1981. no.7

Barnstone, Willis, The Other Bible, San Francisco, Harper and Row, 1984, pp. 350-358.

Augustine, Contra Faustum Manichaeum, II.5 (Pl.42:Cols 212-3)

Bede, History of the Church

French, Peter, John Dee: the world of an Elizabethan Magus, London: New York, 1972 Pl.14.

‘Carolingian – Schools’ Catholic Encyclopaedia.

Carruthers, Mary, The Book of Memory, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2nd edition, 1990.

Cassian of Provence.

Contenau, George, Everyday Life in Babylonia and Assyria, London: Edward Arnold 1959

Cooper, W.V. (trans.), Boethius, Consolations of Philosophy, London: J.M. Dent and Company, 1902 p.10

Cumont, Franz, Oriental Religions in Roman Paganism, New York: Dover pp. 85-6. Originally published 1911 by Routledge and Sons.

Csapo, Eric, ‘An International Community of Traders in Late 8th-7th c. B.C. Kommos in Southern Crete’, Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, Bd. 88, (1991), pp. 211-216 (in English)

Davis, R.H.C., The Normans and their Myth, London: Thames & Hudson, 1980 Pl.36

de Crescenzo, Luciano, The History of Greek Philosophy, (2 vols) London: Picador, 199 Waddell, op.cit., pp. xvi; 47.

De noe, IV, 35; AN III, 301.

de Santillana, Giorgio and von Dechend, Hertha, Hamlet’s Mill: an essay investigating the origins of human knowledge and its transmission through myth, Boston: Godine, 1977. The conclusions of the work are to treated with considerable caution, but a number of rare primary sources are gathered and (as far as I know) those translations are reliable.

De Sélincourt, Aubrey (trans.), Herodotus, The Histories, Harmondsworth, Penguin. The translator considers Herodotus’ Red Sea to have meant the Indian Ocean or Persian Gulf. The point is important.

Encyclopaedia Britannica, ‘Nestorians’, ‘North Africa’,

Erdoes, Richard, A.D. 1000: living on the brink of Apocalypse, San Francisco: Harper and Rowe, 1988 pp. 88-9.

Evans, Joan, ed., The Flowering of the Middle Ages, London, Thames & Hudson Ltd. 1998. (illustrations)

Evans, Joan, Magical Jewels of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, New York: Dover n/d. First published by Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1922.

Fall of the Angels. Caedmon Poems, English c.1000, Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS. Junius XI, fol.3.

Gleason, Judith, A Recitation of Ifa, Oracle of the Yoruba, New York: Grossman, 1973 pp. 73-77.(African geomancy)

Godwin, Joscelyn, The Harmony of the Spheres: a sourcebook of the Pythagorean Tradition in Music, SUNY, 1993. p. 117.

Gospel of Bartholemew (3rd third century a.d). The modern editor notes that texts are preserved in Greek, Latin, and Old Church Slavonic, and that ‘there are Coptic fragments related to the Gospel of Bartholemew’. See: Barnstone, Willis, The Other Bible, San Francisco, Harper & Row, 1984.

Graves, Robert, The Greek Myths, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1960 (revised edition) 2 vols.

Gray, Elizabeth T. Jnr., The Green Sea of Heaven: Fifty ghazals form the Diwan of Hafiz, Ashland, White Cloud Press, 1995.

Green, Tamara, Harran: City of the Moon God: religious traditions of Harran, Leiden: Brill 1992. esp. section on Sumtar Harabesi p.65sqq.

Grosjean, P., ‘Confusa Caligo’, Celtica, vol. iii (1955).

Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, Bd. 88, (1991), pp. 211-216 Gunther, Robert, Astrolabes of the World, (2 vols) London: the Holland Press, 1937..

Hallam, Elizabeth (ed.), Chronicles of the Crusades: eye witness accounts of the wars between Christianity and Islam, London:Guild Publishing, 1989

Heliodorus, Ethiopian Story. (tr. Walter Lamb), London: Dent, 1997 {everyman edition].

Herodotus, Histories Bk 7 62-8. [Perseus]

Hurlstone Jackson, Kenneth, A Celtic Miscellany, Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Il manoscritto estense “De Sphaera” (miniatura del sec.XV). Modena, Editore cav. U. Orlandino 1914 (a facsimile reproduction). Quoted by Moakley as Reale Biblioteca Estense, Modena. Mss .(Lat/209.

Jane Stephenson.’Ephraim the Syrian -“ See special edition of Hugoye: Journal of Syriac Studies, Vol. 1 no 2 (July 1998). (astronomical moralia in religious poetry).

Larner, John, Italy in the Age of Dante and Petrarch 1216-1380, A Longman History of Italy: (Volume Two), London, Longman, 1980.

Lawrence, C.H., Medieval Monasticism: forms of religious life in western Europe in the Middle Ages. Second edition. London: Longmans 1989 p.144.

Le Chronique de France ou de St-Denis, French, 14th century. BL MS Roy, 20C VII, f.42v.

Leveen, Jacob, The Hebrew Bible in Art, New York: Hermon Press 1939 and 1974.

Lewis, B.(ed. and trans.), Islam: from the Prophet Muhammad to the Capture of Constantinople. Vol. II: Religion and Society.

Lindberg, David C., Science in the Middle Ages, London: Uni of Chicago Press, 1978.

Lo libro del multi belli miraculi e de li vitii, Italian 14th century BL.MS Add.22557, f.9v.

Lucian of Samosata: “at Delphi, the virgin prophetess is a symbol of the celestial virgin; the dragon under the tripod is endowed with voice only because there is a dragon shining among the stars..” On Astrology, 23 quoted in Richer, op.cit. p.39.

Luibheid, C. and Russell, N. (trans.), John Climacus: the Ladder of Divine Ascent, Mahwah: Paulist Press, 1982.

Luttrell, Anthony, Latin Greece, The Hospitallers and the Crusades 1291-1440.

Maguire, Henry (ed.), Byzantine Magic, Washington: Dumbarton Oaks research Library and Collection, 1995.

Malleus Maleficorum Part II. Qn.1. Ch.5;

Notker the Stammerer: Chalemagne p.143 (concerning the influence of a Persian embassy on curricula in music and astronomy in the Frankish regions)

Nott, C.S. (trans.), Farid ud-din Attar, The Conference of the Birds: Mantiq ut-Tair’: a philosophical religious poem in prose, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd., 1954.

O’Neil, Time and the Calendars, SUP.

Bodleian Library, MS. Junius XI, fol.3. Illustrated in d’Ancona, P., Aeschlimann E. The Art of Illumination, London, Phaidon, 1969. Plate 34.

Parkins, Helen, and Smith, Christopher, Trade, Traders and the Ancient City, London: Routledge 1998

Parpola, Deciphering the Indus Script, London: Oxford

Paul Harvey, The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature, OUP (various editions).

Phillips. G. (ed.), Doctine of Addai, the Apostle, London, 1987

Pierre d’Ailly(1350-1420) Compendium Cosmographiae.

Plutarch, Oracles I,

Poems of Caedmon -Frontispiece – Bodleian, MS Junius XI, fol.3.

Pomerance, Leon, The Phaistos Disk: an interpretation of Astronomical Symbols, Goteborg, Paul Astroms forlag, 1976.

Pritchard, James B.(ed.), The Ancient Near East: a new anthology of texts and pictures, [ANENT] Vol. II, Princeton University Press, 1975.

Richer, Jean, Sacred Geography of the Ancient Greeks: astrological symbolism in Art, Architecture and Landscape, Albany, State University of New York Press [SUNY], 1999. Eng. trans. by Christine Rhone.

Mathiesen, Robert, ‘Magic in Slavia Orthodoxa: the written tradition’ in Maguire, Henry (ed.), Byzantine Magic, Washington: Dumbarton Oaks research Library and Collection, 1995. esp. Chapter 8 and p. 166 n.26.

Rose, Martial and Hedgecoe Julia, Stories in Stone: the medieval roof carvings of Norwich cathedral, London: Herbert Press, 1997. (astronomy moralised)

Rousseau, Philip, Pachomius, London: Uni of California Press, 1999.

Runciman, Stephen, The Medieval Manichee: a study of the Christian Dualist heresy, C.U.P., 1947 p.21.

Savage-Smith, Emilie, An Islamic thirteenth-century divinatory device

Scott, Walter (ed. & trans.), Hermetica: the ancient greek and latin writings which contain religious or philosophic writings ascribed to Hermes Tresmegistus, Boston: Shambhala 1993

Serjeant, R.B., ‘Islam’ in Lowe, M. and Blacker, C., (eds.), Oracles and Divination, Boulder, Shambhala 1981.

Serjeant, W.C. (ed.), Astrologer’s Guide. Anima Astrologiae…., London: Regulus 1986. It contains the “Considerations’ of Bonati together with Cardan’s “choicest aphorisms”.

Seznec, Jean, The Survival of the Pagan Gods: the mythological tradition and its place in renaissance Humanism and Art, Bollingen Series XXXVIII, Princeton University Press1953. Of limited use in evaluating the nature and extent of east-west communication, but very good on the European traditions as such.

Skinner, Stephen, The Oracle of Geomancy: techniques of earth divination, Bridport: Prism, 1977.

Smith, D.E., A History of Mathematics, 2 vols., London: Constable & Co, 1958. esp. Vol.II pp. 136-140; 651ff.

Smith, Dennis Mack, A History of Sicily: Medieval Sicily 800-1713, London: Chatto & Windus, 1968. use of papyrus for court documents; multi-cultural influences; diplomatic connections of the court etc.

Southern, R.W., Scholastic Humanism and the Unification of Europe. Vol 1: Foundations. Oxford: Blackwell 1995

Stephenson, H.W., Solutions of Problems in Surveying and Field Astronomy, London: Pitman & Sons, 1955 Chapters 13 & 14.

Irby-Massie, Georgina Lynette, Greek Science in the Hellenistic Era: a sourcebook

Chandra, Moti, Trade and Trade Routes in Ancient India, New Delhi: Abhinav Publications, 1977

Prasad, Prakash Charan, Foreign Trade and Commerce in Ancient India, New Delhi: Abhinav Publications, 1977 (excellent maps. technical economic history. Tone somewhat nationalist)

Urban, Jan, “On the History of Geological mapping in Czechoslovakia”, Annals of Science, Vol.37, Issue 4, July 1980, pp.413-432.

Goitein, S.D., “From Aden to India: specimens of correspondence of India traders in the twelfth century”, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, Vol.XXIII, Parts I and II (April, 1980) pp. 43-66.

Goitein, S.D., “Portrait of a Medieval India Trader: three letters from the Cairo Geniza”, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol.50, No.3 (1987), pp.449-464.

Tibbetts, G.R., Arab Navigation in the Indian Ocean Before the Coming of the Portuguese: being a translation of Kitab al-Fawa’id fi usul al-bahr wa’l-qawa’id of Ahmad b. Majid al-Najdi, London: Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland [Luzac & Co.], 1971

Wood, Florence and Kenneth, Homer’s Secret Illiad, London: John Murray, 1999. (A most unfortunate and prejudicial title for a serious work).

Hart, Louise, ‘Rasa’il-e Ikhwan us Safa: Epistles of the Brethren of Purity’, Sunrise, (April- May), 1973, Theosophical University Press.

‘Dr. Grant and the Mountain Nestorians’, The New Englander, Vol.11, (August 1853).

‘The Thunder, Perfect Mind’ in Barnstone, Willis, The Other Bible, San Francisco: Harper & Row. 1984 pp.596.


Taton, Rene, (ed.), A General History of the Sciences, Vol. I Ancient and Medieval Science from prehistory to ad 1450, London: Thames and Hudson, 1963.

Taylor, Hugoye, Vol.1 No.2.

Thorndike, Lynn, Michael Scot, London, Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1965, p108. Thorndike cites Munich Staatsbibliotek, cod. lat. 10268, 79rb-80vb.

Thorpe, Lewis (ed. and trans), Two lives of Charlemagne, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1969 Einhard and Notke are the biographers.

Josephus, A History of the Jewish People



Chase, George Henry, “The Shield Devices of the Greeks”, Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, Vol.13 (1902), pp.61-127.

From Jewish magic to Gnosticism by Attilio Mastrocinque

Catherine Cartwright has researched henna’s history and use. A number of her works are available online.

Information about the importance of Bundi, in this regard, comes from a work published in India, where the most traditional patterns are explained by reference to their formerly being employed on specific days and occasions.

up to the time I began writing blogposts i


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